INTRODUCTION TO THE AREA
Fast dwindling population of Indian Tiger (pannhera tigris) in the 20th Century had almost put this species of ecological importance on the verge of extinction. A the end of the 19th Century. Estimated number of tiger was approximately 40000.A concern was raised to protect this species along with its area a which it was found. Govt of India took decision to conduct census of this species throughout the country so that viable population areas are recognized. Accordingly, country wide census was done in the year 1972 which produced alarming situation as 1875 tigers were located in the whole of country. Thus on the basis of the census operation nine state of Jharkhand, forests situated in the southern portion of Palamau district was found suitable for creation of Tiger Reserve and consequently Palamau Tiger Reserve was created in June 1974 as per notification issued by the state Govt. of Bihar.
Palamau Tiger Reserve is located in the district of Palamau, situated between latitudes 23 digree25 inch and 23 digree55 inch North and Longitudes 83 digree50 inch and 84 degree 36 inch eastern in the state of Jharkhand.
This forests now forms part of the two Forest Divisions namely project Tiger Division and Daltonganj South Division. Headed by Divisional Forest Officers under the palamau project Tiger Circle. Vide notification No.35/96 dated 15.01.97 by the state Govt. of Bihar. Total area of Palamau Tiger Reserve is 1026.00Sq.Kms.
As stated in the above para, two Forest Divisions are divided into Ranges. beats and sub beats. The division into Ranges. beats and sub beats. The division into Ranges is as follows:-
(1)Project Tiger Division:
Betla Range, Chhipadohar East Range, Chhipadohar West Range and Kutku Range. Area of this Division spreads over 575.Sq Kms.
Daltonganj South Forest Division:
Garu East Range, Garu West Range, Barasand Range and Mahuadane Range. Total area of Daltonganj South Division spreads over 730 Sq .Km. including Mahuadane Range, which is outside the Tiger Reserve.
Thus total area of the project Tiger Circle is 1306 Sq.Kms.The area of the Palamau Tiger Reserve falls is the following district:
Palamau district - 854.13 Sq.Kms.
Garhwa district - 156.05 Sq.Kms.
Gumla district - 15.82 Sq.Kms.
Total Area of PTR - 1026.00 Sq. Kms.
The present form of the Reserve dates back to march 1961 when Daltonganj north Division was carved out of Daltonganj Forest Division vide Govt. of Bihar notification No. C/F-013/61-445 R dated 16th 20th March, 1961.
Initially all the forests of the present Reserve were under the parent Palamu Forest division which was formed in 1875. In 1884,the chhotanagpur division was constituted comprising as subdivisions the formerly constituted Palamu,Hazaribagh and Singhbhum divisions.in 1890-91 Palanu was again formed into a separate division which remained till the year 1952
Majority of the Reserved Forest were constituted in 1877 under the Indian Forest Act. Of 1863 but they over ratified in 1879 under the Indian Fforest Act 1878.
Protected Forest(old) were earlier notified under section 20 of the Indian Forest Act 1878.Allthese forest were later notified as reserve forest under section 20 of the Indian forests Act 1927 vide notification No. SO.2688 dated 6th month 1978 by the State govt. of Bihar . Khalsa reserve forests were notified as reserve forests vide notification No.6661-111-F339-949 dated 7.11.1949 and SO.100 dated 18.1.1978.
All the Zamindari forests were notified as protected forests under the provision of Indian forest Act 1927 vide various notification from 1953 to 1966. All these projected forests are right burdened forests.
979.97 Sq. Km.area of the Palamu tiger reserve has been declared as palamu wildlife Sanctuary umder section 18 (1)of the wildlife(protection )Act 1972 vide S.O.No.1224 dated 17.7.1979 an area of 746.36Sq.Km.has been sent to Govt.of Bihar for final notification under section 26 of the Act. An area of 226.32.Sq.Km. has been notified as Betla National park .
Forest of the Palamu Tiger Reserve is divided into three zones,viz.Buffer zone, Core zone and Tourism zone . The area and name of the forests falling in each zone is given in Annexure –1.A map showing distribution of zone is shown on Map No.-1.
A map of the state of Jharkhand showing forest cover an location of the Palamu Tiger is Reserve is shown in Map No.-2.
Approach and access:
The nearest railhead is Daltonganj which is 25 Km. away from Betla, the center of the Forest Zone. Berwadih and Chhipadoher are also rail heads inside the reserve.
In the western side of the Reserve the Daltonganj- Ranchi state high way passes. Another P.W.D. road almost passes through reserve, which connects Daltonganj to Betla , Chhipadoher, Garu, Baresand , Mahuadar, Neterhat etc. Road traffic is all- weather from Daltonganj to Ranchi and few Buses also ply from Daltonganj to Mahuadar.
The nearest airport is Ranchi which is about 180 Km. from Daltonganj and 195 Km. from Betla and Patna airport is about 250Kms. From Betla, tourist head quarter of the Palamu Tiger reserve.
A road traverse from garu to Banari from were one can go to Ranchi, Gumla and Neterhat.